Although investment in consumer goods was projected, expansion in production raised the standard of living of the Soviet people. Refrigerators, owned by only 32 percent of the population in the early 1970s, reached 86% of households in the late 1980s, and ownership of color televisions increased from 51% in the early 1970s to 74% in the 1980s. On the other hand, although some areas improved during the Brezhnev era, most government services deteriorated and the physical environment for the ordinary Soviet citizen collapsed rapidly. The diseases increased as a result of the decomposing health care system and the living space remained relatively small to First World standards, with an ordinary Soviet citizen of 13.4 square meters .
In 1936, Stalin reversed most liberal laws, heralding a pro-naturalistic era for decades. On March 17, 1991, a referendum was held in nine republics for the preservation of the USSR, and the majority of the population in those republics voted to preserve the Union. In the summer of 1991, eight republics agreed on the New Union Treaty, which would have made the country a much more flexible Union.
In music, in response to the increasing popularity of popular music forms such as jazz in the West, many jazz orchestras were allowed across the USSR, most notably the Melodiya Ensemble, named after the most important record label in the USSR The development of these writing systems was very successful, despite the fact that some defects were discovered. During the last days of the USSR, countries with the same multilingual situation pursued a similar policy. A serious problem in creating these writing systems was that languages differed dialectically. When a language received a writing system and appeared in a remarkable publication, it would attain “official language” status. There were many minority languages that never received their own writing system; therefore the speakers were forced to have a second language.
However, the signing of the treaty was interrupted by the August coup, an attempted coup by hardline members of the government and the KGB, who attempted to reverse Gorbachev’s reforms and regain control of the central government over the republics. After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin was seen as a hero for his decisive actions, while Gorbachev’s power ended effectively. In August 1991, Latvia and Estonia immediately declared the restoration of their total independence (following Lithuania’s example in 1990). Gorbachev resigned as Secretary General at the end of August and shortly thereafter the party’s activities were suspended indefinitely, effectively ending his government. By autumn, Gorbachev was no longer able to influence events outside Moscow, and Yeltsin even challenged him, who had been elected President of Russia in July 1991. When the economic growth of the USSR stagnated in the 1970s, the government’s focus changed to improve living standards and housing quality.
However, the theory of developed socialism also believed that the Soviet Union had reached a developing state where it was free from crisis, and this turned out to be incorrect. As a result, Yuri Andropov, Brezhnev’s successor, began the de-Brezhnevisation of the Soviet Union during his short tenure and introduced more realistic ideological propositions. In late 1979, Taraki was unable to murder Amin, who successfully designed Taraki’s own murder on October 9 in a revenge attack.
Many of the first Russian feminists and ordinary Russian working women actively participated in the revolution and many more were affected by the events of the period and the new policy. As of October 1918, the Lenin government has liberalized divorce and abortion laws, decriminalized homosexuality (re-criminalized in the 1930s), allowed coexistence and initiated a series of reforms. Without contraception, however, the new system resulted in many broken marriages, as well as countless illegitimate children. The epidemic of divorces and extra-marital affairs caused social difficulties when Soviet leaders wanted people to focus their efforts on growing the economy. Giving women control over their fertility also led to a rapid decline in the birth rate, which is seen as a threat to their country’s military power.
It was the largest country in the world, with an area of over 22,402,200 square kilometers and eleven time zones. The post of Secretary-General was abolished under Stalin in 1952 and later restored by Nikita Khrushchev under the name of First Secretary. As head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Secretary-General’s office was the highest in the Soviet Union until 1990. The President of the Soviet Union, an agency founded in March 1990, replaced the Secretary-General as the supreme political office of the Soviet Union. After his death in 1924, a power struggle took place, with the main opponents Leon Trotsky and Stalin. Although considered less brilliant than Trotsky, Stalin proved to be a superior politician and administrator.
The generation born during the Stalin government was the first generation to be almost universally literate. Some engineers were sent abroad to learn industrial technology and hundreds of foreign engineers were contractually brought to Russia. Transport connections were also improved by the construction of many new railways, albeit with forced labor, which cost thousands of lives. Workers who exceeded their quotas, Stakhanovites, received Soviet collectibles a lot of incentives for their work, although many of these workers were in fact “regular” to succeed in receiving extreme help in their work, and then their performance was used for propaganda. Literally “counsel” in English) were political organizations and government agencies of the late Russian Empire, primarily associated with the Russian revolution, which gave the name to the last states of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union.
World War II resulted in massive destruction of infrastructure and populations across Eurasia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and almost no country was left unharmed. The Soviet Union was mainly destroyed by the massive destruction of the industrial base it built in the 1930s. The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1946–48 as a result of the destruction of the war that cost between 1 and 1.5 million lives, as well as the losses of the secondary population due to reduced fertility. However, the Soviet Union regained its production capabilities and exceeded pre-war capabilities, became the country with the most powerful ground army in history at the end of the war, and had the most powerful military production capabilities. Urban women under Stalin, parallel to the modernization of Western countries, were also the first generation of women to give birth in a hospital with access to prenatal care. Education was another area where improvements were made after economic development, also parallel to other Western countries.
Because the Soviets changed their loyalty, Barre expelled all Soviet advisers, broke his friendship treaty with the Soviet Union, and changed his loyalty to the West. The United States took the place of the Soviet Union in the 1980s after the loss of Somalia in the Ogaden war. After Nikolai Podgorny was removed from office, rumors began to circulate in the upper circles and Kosygin would retire on the street due to ill health. During one of Kosygin’s sick leave conditions, Brezhnev appointed Nikolai Tikhonov, an like-minded conservative, as the post of First Deputy President of the Council of Ministers; Through this office, Tikhonov was able to reduce Kosygin to a supporting role.